Sinus Problems/ Sinusitis

by admin_gothkm8c

Sinuses are a connected system of empty spaces between the bones of the human eyes, behind the cheekbone, and on the forehead. Sinus makes mucus to keep the nose moist from inside, prevent smoke and dust from entering the nose, and keep it clean.

Types of Sinuses

There are four paired sinus cavities present in a human skull, such as paranasal sinuses near the human head, nose, and eyes. The list of these sinuses is given below:

  • The ethmoidal sinuses present between human eyes
  • The sphenoidal sinuses present behind the human eyes
  • The frontal sinuses present above the human eyes
  • The maxillary sinuses present below the human eyes

Symptoms of Sinusitis

Some common signs and symptoms of Sinusitis are given below:

  • Nasal inflammation
  • Runny nose all the time and thick discharge of puss or fluid
  • A stuffy or blocked nose that causes difficulty in breathing
  • Pain, soreness, and swelling around your nose, eyes, cheeks, and forehead
  • Lessen the sense of smell and taste
  • Headache
  • Pain in Ears
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Tiredness
  • Fatigue
  • Bad breath (Halitosis)
  • Aching in teeth and upper jaw

If you are having the following signs and symptoms in your body, it means you are suffering from a severe infection:

  • Stiff neck
  • Confusion
  • Double vision or other changes in vision
  • Severe headache
  • Redness and swelling around your eyes
  • Fever
  • Swelling in forehead

Types of Sinusitis

The kinds of Sinusitis are given below:

  • Acute Sinusitis: It is a short-time inflammation or infection in the sinuses. A sudden outbreak of cold symptoms such as stuffy nose, runny nose, and facial pain remains for more than ten days during this problem. Antibiotics and decongestants can quickly treat it.
  • Chronic Sinusitis: As mentioned above, sinusitis occurs when the sinuses become infected and filled with fluid. If this condition continues to exist for an extended period, such as for two to three months, this ultimately results in chronic Sinusitis. In this condition, the patient felt drainage and facial pain; and his sense of smell decreased for at least 12 weeks.
  • Subacute Sinusitis: Subacute Sinusitis is the condition in which the symptoms of Sinusitis last for four to twelve weeks. It is a more severe form than acute Sinusitis and less severe than chronic sinusitis.
  • Recurrent Sinusitis: In recurrent sinusitis, the symptoms of sinusitis come back at least four times a year and last for twelve weeks each time.

Causes of Sinusitis

Some common causes of Sinusitis are given below:

  • Nasal polyps: Nasal polyps are painless, soft, and non-cancerous growth on sinuses or nasal passages lining. They hand down like grapes or teardrops and obstruct the nasal passage, which leads to sinusitis.
  • Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as HIV, cystic fibrosis, or other immune system problems ultimately lead to sinusitis.
  • Infection in the respiratory tract: The respiratory tract infection caused by viruses and bacteria leads to inflammation, sinus membrane thickness, and blockage of the mucus drainage, which ultimately leads to sinusitis.
  • Allergies: Nasal and seasonal allergies lead to cold or flu, which can become the main reason for sinusitis.
  • Deviated nasal septum: A bent or crooked nasal septum may block the sinus and leads to sinusitis.
  • Weak immune system: When the immune system becomes weak due to an illness or medication leads to sinusitis.
  • Usage of the pacifier: Children and infants who spend their time in daycare centers using a pacifier or drink bottles while lying down have more chance of developing sinusitis.
  • Smoking: Smoking is harmful to the lungs, nose, and other body parts. If you are a smoker, you have more chance of developing sinusitis.

Diagnosis

Consult your doctor immediately if you find the aforementioned sinusitis symptoms in your body. During diagnosis, your doctor may ask various questions regarding your condition, medical history, or daily habits to discover your symptoms. He will also perform a physical examination to check your nose, throat, and ears to detect any draining, swelling, or blockage. He may also use an endoscope to look inside your nose for a complete diagnosis. If any imaging exam is needed, your doctor may order a computed tomography (CT) scan.

Treatment

The treatment of sinusitis depends on the type and severity of the case. Some simple ways to treat sinusitis are;

  • The doctor will provide you with decongestant medicine to give relief for a short time from a stuffy or blocked nose.
  • The doctor may prescribe cold and allergy medications.
  • The doctor puts saline in your nose to clean the nasal passage for puss and mucus.
  • Drinking fluids are also helpful in treating sinusitis at an initial stage.

If there is no improvement found in ten-fifteen days, then the doctor may prescribe the following procedures to treat the disease;

  • Use of antibiotics for seven days in adults.
  • Tropical and oral decongestants
  • Intranasal steroid sprays

While the following methods can treat chronic sinusitis;

  • Intranasal steroids sprays
  • Oral pills or topical antihistamine sprays
  • Leukotriene antihistamine can be prescribed to reduce the symptoms of allergies and swelling.
  • Clean your nose through saline solutions or other types of medications

If the sinusitis problem is still uncontrollable by the treatment mentioned above, the doctor will further suggest a CT scan for a complete diagnosis of sinuses. After the results, they will move forward for surgery to correct the sinuses’ structural problems that mostly happen if a person has polyps or fungal infection.

Risk factors

Your risk of suffering from Sinusitis will be increased if you are having the following problems:

  • Asthma
  • Tumors
  • Fungal infection
  • Dental infection
  • Aspirin sensitivity
  • Nasal polyps
  • Deviated nasal septum
  • Disorder in the immune system
  • Fever or other allergic conditions
  • Exposure to pollutants regularly like cigarette smoke

Complications

The complications after having sinusitis may include:

  • Infections: In exceptional cases, people who suffer from chronic sinusitis may develop an inflammation of membranes and the fluid or puss that further surrounds the human brain and spinal cord, leading to infection.
  • Vision problems: In some cases, when sinusitis infects your eye sockets, it can lead to permanent blindness.

Preventions

  • Avoid respiratory infections: Avoid contact with those who have a cold or sickness with other infections. Your health must be your priority. Wash your hands with soap before having meals.
  • Avoid cigarette smoke and its polluted air: Try to avoid smoking, and if anyone in your family or social circle is a smoker, you must avoid sitting in their company.
  • Control your Allergies: Visit your doctor weekly or monthly for your checkup, and always try to avoid exposure to the things you are allergic to.
  • Use Humidifier: Use a humidifier to keep your room’s air moist and prevent sinusitis caused by dry air.

References

  • https://www.webmd.com/allergies/picture-of-the-sinuses retrieved on March 29, 2022.
  • https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chronic-sinusitis/symptoms-causes/syc-20351661 retrieved on March 29, 2022.
  • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17701-sinusitis retrieved on March 29, 2022.
  • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/15285-acute-sinusitis retrieved on March 29, 2022.
  • https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/diseases/17700-chronic-sinusitis retrieved on March 29, 2022.
  • https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/decongestants/ retrieved on March 29, 2022.

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